In this blog, I would tell you all about Quantum Computing. Have you wondered what word computing means and what the application of computing is in real life?

Computing has a very important place in our life.

That research in computing further lead us to Quantum Computing which has done wonders in our lives

## What does Computing mean?

Computing is the process of using computer technology to complete a given goal-oriented task. Computing may encompass the design and development of software and hardware systems for a broad range of purposes – often structuring, processing, and managing any kind of information – to aid in the pursuit of scientific studies, making intelligent systems, and creating and using different media for entertainment and communication

## What does the word Quantum mean?

Quantum is the Latin word for amount and, in modern understanding, means the smallest possible discrete unit of any physical property, such as energy or matter. For example, a photon is a single quantum of light Similarly, the energy of an electron bound within an atom is quantized and can exist only in certain discrete values.

## Quantum Computing

Quantum computing is a type of computation that harnesses the collective properties of quantum states, such as superposition, interference, and entanglement, to perform calculations. orQuantum computing harnesses the phenomena of quantum mechanics to deliver a huge leap forward in computation to solve certain problemsThe devices that perform quantum computations are known as quantum computers.

## Why do we need quantum computers?

Until now, weâve relied on supercomputers to solve most problems. These are very large classical computers, often with thousands of classical CPU and GPU cores. However, supercomputers arenât very good at solving certain types of problems, which seem easy at first glance. This is why we need a quantum computers.

## Types of Quantum Computing?

There are several types of quantum computers (also known as quantum computing systems), including the quantum circuit model, quantum Turing machine, adiabatic quantum computer, one-way quantum computer, and various quantum cellular automata. The most widely used model is the quantum circuit, based on the quantum bit, or “qubit”, which is somewhat analogous to the bit in classical computation. A qubit can be in a 1 or 0 quantum state, or in a superposition of the 1 and 0 states. When it is measured, however, it is always 0 or 1; the probability of either outcome depends on the qubit’s quantum state immediately prior to measurement

**Quantum Anneale**r is the easiest to build and also the weakest. Todayâs classical computer can outperform this kind of quantum computer for everyday tasks like email, video creation, gaming, etc. However, the Quantum Annealer is superior in the ability to factor in very large numbers (breaking encryption) and to solve optimization problems (like analyzing route data for mapping applications). D-Wave Systems was one of the first companies to announce a commercially available quantum computer and utilize Quantum Annealing for its core processing.- Analog Quantum Computer or the Analog Quantum computer is where the mainstream is heading now and largely because an Analog Quantum Computer is far faster than todayâs traditional computers and has incredible computational benefits. There are several companies building quantum computers using this technology paradigm, including Google, Microsoft, IBM Q, Rigetti, Google, Honeywell, and IonQ. This form of a quantum computer is more difficult to manufacture, but it holds great promise for solving massive problems in quantum chemistry, material science, quantum dynamics, sampling, and optimization problems. The Analog Quantum computer can be used to break current encryption standards using encryption-breaking algorithms, like SHORâs or Groverâs. The Analog Quantum Computer will emerge as the first form of computer that will exponentially outperform todayâs classical computers.
- Universal Quantum Computer is the most complex to build but is the most powerful. It will have more than 100,000 qubits and require massive amounts of energy to operate. More than the energy requirements, the Universal Quantum computer requires cryogenic cooling to maintain the absolute zero-4 Kelvin to operate. IBM is designing a chip for Universal Quantum Computing and IBM is doing a lot of work in this area too from both hardware & software. While we donât know what other companies are working on, I would expect to hear that Google and Microsoft will have initiatives in the area too. Universal Quantum Computers can be used for secure computing, machine learning, quantum dynamics, optimization problems, material science, and quantum chemistry. It can break encryption even faster than any other form of a quantum computer.
- So quantum computing is taking quantum leaps in terms of power, performance, and capability.
**Quantum Anneale**r is the easiest to build and also the weakest. Todayâs classical computer can outperform this kind of quantum computer for everyday tasks like email, video creation, gaming, etc. However, the Quantum Annealer is superior in the ability to factor in very large numbers (breaking encryption) and to solve optimization problems (like analyzing route data for mapping applications). D-Wave Systems was one of the first companies to announce a commercially available quantum computer and utilize Quantum Annealing for its core processing.- Analog Quantum Computer or the Analog Quantum computer is where the mainstream is heading now and largely because an Analog Quantum Computer is far faster than todayâs traditional computers and has incredible computational benefits. There are several companies building quantum computers using this technology paradigm, including Google, Microsoft, IBM Q, Rigetti, Google, Honeywell, and IonQ. This form of a quantum computer is more difficult to manufacture, but it holds great promise for solving massive problems in quantum chemistry, material science, quantum dynamics, sampling, and optimization problems. The Analog Quantum computer can be used to break current encryption standards using encryption-breaking algorithms, like SHORâs or Groverâs. The Analog Quantum Computer will emerge as the first form of computer that will exponentially outperform todayâs classical computers.
- Universal Quantum Computer is the most complex to build but is the most powerful. It will have more than 100,000 qubits and require massive amounts of energy to operate. More than the energy requirements, the Universal Quantum computer requires cryogenic cooling to maintain the absolute zero-4 Kelvin to operate. IBM is designing a chip for Universal Quantum Computing and IBM is doing a lot of work in this area too from both hardware & software. While we donât know what other companies are working on, I would expect to hear that Google and Microsoft will have initiatives in the area too. Universal Quantum Computers can be used for secure computing, machine learning, quantum dynamics, optimization problems, material science, and quantum chemistry. It can break encryption even faster than any other form of a quantum computer.
- So quantum computing is taking quantum leaps in terms of power, performance, and capability.

## How does Quantum compute?

Quantum computers complete calculations using the probability of a qubitâs state before itâs measured. In quantum computing, operations use the quantum state of qubits. These states are the undefined properties before theyâve been detected, such as the spin of an electron or the polarization of a photon

## Applications of Quantum computing

As the technology develops, quantum computing could lead to significant advances in numerous fields, from chemistry and materials science to nuclear physics and machine learning. Top applications include:

- Machine learning
- Super-catalyst design
- Medicine
- Chemistry
- Climate change/Earth science
- Battery chemistry
- Material science
- Engineering
- Artificial intelligence
- Information security
- Biomimetics
- Energy
- Photovoltaics
- Financial services
- Supply chain and logistics

## How quantum computing could transform the world?

### Superposition

Classical computers are made up of millions or billions of transistors that exist in an ‘ON’ or ‘OFF’ state equal to 1 or 0 respectively. Quantum Computers use Qubits (quantum bits) that mimic the state of subatomic particles and can exist as a 1 or 0 or both at the same time. Whenever we measure its state, we will find that it is either ON or OFF. But between measurements, the quantum system can be in a superposition of both ON and OFF states at the same time.

### Entanglement

Once two quantum systems interact with one another, they become entangled partners. The state of one system will give precise information about the state of the other system. This is known as entanglement.Quantum computers, unlike conventional computers, explore the full spectrum of possible computational solutions simultaneously, while classical computers look at each solution in sequence. In 2016 IBM made the first quantum computer with five qubits. In 2019 it was with 27 qubits. In 2022, it will be with 433 qubits. By 2023 Quantum computers with 1121 qubits will be built.

As per New Moore’s law, Quantum Volume doubles every year. Quantum Volume is the product of qubits added and error rate decrease. It is a metric that indicates the computational power of a quantum computer.Quantum computing is a disruptive technology. People are excited about this technology. It has applications in cyber security, internet search, and Artificial Intelligence.

Almost every industry from finance to telecommunications can reap the benefits of Quantum computing. A lot of educational institutions have started courses on this subject. This technology has a lot of use cases in finance, agriculture, transport, etc. RBI can predict how its policies will affect the economy. It can be used to optimize investment portfolios. Improving nitrogen fixation can be achieved with better fertilizers minimizing the pollution. The transport system can be overhauled. Better batteries can be designed with less charging time and with more life.

## Future Of Quantum Computing

In the near future â perhaps within 5 to 10 years, but who knows, maybe a lot sooner â quantum computing will be at a stage where it can be used to solve problems that improve our lives, on an everyday basis â Intelâs head of quantum research, Jim Clarke, calls this âquantum practicality.”Quantum wonât entirely replace classical computing â not in the foreseeable future, anyway â for many computational tasks it wonât offer any real advantage. For the types of complex calculations that it does excel at, though, we can expect to see computers that operate hundreds of millions of times more quickly.

## Quantum Research

Quantum technology is one of the most researched areas and is attracting huge investments. This technology is having immense potential. This can be divided into four verticals – quantum computing, quantum communications, quantum sensors, and quantum materials.This technology is based on the phenomenon exhibited by particles like photons, electrons, etc. To describe the behavior of these particles, quantum mechanics came into the picture. The phenomena of Superposition, Entanglement, Teleportation (transfer of matter or energy from one point to another without traveling the physical space between them), and tunneling (a phenomenon where a wave can propagate through a barrier) are exhibited by these particles.

## Summary

These aspects of quantum mechanics led to a number of interesting applications-exponential increase in computing power, inherently secure communication, interaction-free measurements, precise and sensitive sensors, etc. In the case of quantum computing, we will be able to take computing power to the next level. Quantum computers work by using quantum mechanical phenomena to process massive datasets where these datasets would bog down a classical computer. Researchers have a goal called Quantum Supremacy. Its supremacy is showing that any problem beyond the capabilities of a traditional computer can be solved on a quantum computer. The use of quantum properties such as superposition of states and entanglement speeds up processing power and handles an unlimited number of variables.

Hope All of you become aware of Quantum Computing and in the near future how impactful it would be and transform our life completely.

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